Global economic growth is slowing, and several economies are suffering from recession, unemployment, and/or environmental destruction challenging sustainable development. These developments are reinforced by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Developments in biology are expected to allow for technical change addressing many of these challenges. Reaching these expectations will require an institutional and policy environment supporting investments and technical change. This Special Issue examines the possible contributions of the bioeconomy to economic growth, employment, and the environment and addresses how institutions and policies can support these contributions.